Bladder Cancer Biomarkers: Review and Update


As the recurrence and mortality rates of bladder cancer are high, research is needed to find suitable biomarkersfor early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses. We performed a computerizedsearch of the Medline/PubMed databases with the key words bladder cancer, biomarker, early detection, prognosisand drug response. Several markers were identified at DNA, RNA and protein levels with different sensitivitiesand specificities. Only a few of the potential bladder cancer biomarkers have been approved for clinical use.Efforts now should be concentrated on finding a panel of markers with acceptable sensitivity and specificity forearly detection of bladder cancer.