Utility of Digital Rectal Examination, Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Transrectal Ultrasound in the Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Developing Country Perspective


Purpose: To determine the utility of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum total prostate specific antigen(tPSA) estimation, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men withlower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Materials and
Methods: All patients with abnormal DRE, TRUS, or serumtPSA >4ng/ml, in any combination, underwent TRUS-guided needle biopsy. Eight cores of prostatic tissue wereobtained from different areas of the peripheral prostate and examined histopathologically for the nature of thepathology.
Results: PCa was detected in 151 (50.3%) patients, remaining 149 (49.7%) showed benign changeswith or without active prostatitis. PCa was detected in 13 (56.5%), 9 (19.1%), 26 (28.3%), and 103 (74.6%) ofpatients with tPSA <4 ng/ml, 4-10 ng/ml, 10-20 ng/ml and >20 ng/ml respectively. Only 13 patients with PCahad abnormal DRE and TRUS with serum PSA <4 ng/ml. The detection rate was highest in patients with tPSA>20 ng/ml. The association between tPSA level and cancer detection was statistically significant (p<0.01). Among209 patients with abnormal DRE and raised serum PSA, PCa was detected in 128 (61.2%).
Conclusions: Theincidence of PCa increases with increasing serum level of tPSA. The overall screening and detection rate can befurther improved by using DRE, TRUS and TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsies.