The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) plays important roles in the DNA baseexcision repair pathway which may influence the development of lung cancer. This study aimed to evaluatethe potential association of the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism with lung cancer risk. The createdrestriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods were utilized to evaluatethe XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism among 376 lung cancer patients and 379 controls. Associationsbetween the genetic polymorphism and lung cancer risk were determined with an unconditional logistic regressionmodel. Our data suggested that the distribution of allele and genotype in lung cancer patients was significantlydifferent from that of controls. The XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism was associated with an increasedrisk of lung cancer (AA vs GG: OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.70-4.98, p<0.001; A vs G: OR=1.52, 95%CI 1.22-1.90, p<0.001).The allele A and genotype AA may contribute to risk of lung cancer. These preliminary results suggested thatthe XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism is statistically associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinesepopulation.