We here document discovery of expression profile of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in chronichepatitis B (CHB) patients and changes in the course of disease. The study population was composed of 75outpatient HBV cases and 15 healthy control cases. Peripheral blood samples were collected for separationof mononuclear cells. Levels of MDSCs labeled with Lin-DR-CD11b+CD33+ obtained from peripheral bloodmononuclear cells (PBMC), were revealed to have significant differences between the CHB and other groups.They were 0.414% for health control cases and 0.226% for CHB cases (Z=-2.356, p=0.0189). It also observed thatthe group of HBeAg positive cases had significant difference in MDSCs/ PBMC median (X2=11.877, p=0.003),compared with group of HBeAg negative cases and the healthy control group. It suggested considerable MDSCsmight be involved in HBeAg immune tolerance. In addition, negative correlations between MDSCs/PBMC andparameters of ALT, AST and TBil, while positive correlation between MDSCs/ PBMC and ALB parameter werefound. Multiple comparisons between the four phases and health control phase again, there was a statisticallysifnificant difference (X2=17.198, p=0.002). Taken together, these findings may provide a new immunotherapystrategy for reduced the expression levels of MDSCs in CHB patients, through induction of an autoimmuneresponse to virus removal.