The purpose of this study was through a survey of awareness of cancer and cancer screening of Korean community residents to identify the stereotypes of cancer and bases for development of improved screening programs for early detection. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were over 30 years and under 69 years old. The total was 2,700 persons which underwent structured telephone survey questionnaires considered with specific rates of gender, region, and age. For statistical analysis, PASW Statistics 17.0 WIN was utilized. Frequency analysis, the Chi-square (X2) test for univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed. The awareness of cancer and cancer screening in subjects differed by gender, region and age. For the idea of cancer, women thought about death less than men (OR: 0.73, p<0.001). On the other hand, women had negative thoughts - fear/terror/suffering/pain/pain - more than their male counterparts (OR: 2.04, p<0.001). Next, for the idea of cancer screening, women recognized fear/terror more than men (OR: 1.38, p<0.01). Thehigher age, the more tension/anxiety/worry/burden/irritated/pressure (OR: 1.43, p<0.01, OR: 2.15, p<0.001, OR: 2.49, p<0.001)). People may be reminded of fear and death for cancer and of fear, terror, tension and anxiety for cancer screening. To change vague fear and negative attitudes of cancer could increase the rate of cancer screening as well as help to improve the quality of life for community cancer survivors and facilitate return to normal social life. Therefore, it is necessary to provide promotion and education to improve the awareness ofcancer and cancer screening.