Background: The incidence rate of thyroid cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years, and it is also the most prevalent cancer when it comes to the number of patients among Korean women. With it, ultrasonographic screening test has also become very common. However, there is still controversy over theperformance of this screening test. Therefore, the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA) organized a Round-table Conference on the issues regarding ultrasonographic screening for thyroid cancer in Korea. The objective of the conference was mainly about delivering worthwhile information reflecting social value for the current situation, which was based on evidence surrounding thyroid cancer screening that relevant experts investigated and agreed on. The significance of this Round-table Conference lies in the factthat we reviewed the current evidence, and we were able to discuss the social value and future direction for ultrasonographic screening in Korea.