Conventional chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma typically causes various side effects. Our previous study showed that cecropin of Musca domestica can induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells in vitro. However, whether cecropin inhibits BEL-7402 cell in vivo and the question of possible side effects remained undentified. The present study confirmed tumor-inhibitory effects of cecropin in vivo, and furthermore strongly suggested that cecropin cytotoxicity in BEL-7402 cells in vivo may be mainly derived from its pro-apoptotic action. Specifically, we found that cecropin exerted no obvious side effects in tumor-bearing mice as it had no significant hematoxicity as well as visceral toxicity. Therefore, cecropin may be a potentialcandidate for further investigation as an antitumor agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.