MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical regulators of genes involved in many biological processes. Aberrant alteration of miRNAs have been found in many cancers, including gastric cancer (GC), but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, we investigated the role of miR-124 in GC. We found that its expression was significantly reduced in both GC tissue samples and cell lines. Forced expression of miR-124 suppressed GC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK1) was identified as a direct target of miR-124 in GC cells. Finally, silencing of ROCK1 showed similar effects as miR-124 overexpression, while supplementation of ROCK1 remarkably restored the cell growth and invasion inhibited by miR-124. Together, our data demonstrate that miR-124 acts as a tumor suppressor bytargeting ROCK1, and posit miR-124 as a novel strategy for GC treatment.