Several studies have suggested associations between MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) polymorphisms and leukemia risk, but they reported contradictory results. For better understanding of the effect of MDM2 T309G polymorphism on leukemia risk, we performed a meta-analysis. All eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM) databases before May 2014. Assessment of associations between the MDM2 T309G polymorphism and leukemia risk was conducted by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Finally, a total of 11 publications covering 12 case-control studies with 2, 362 cases and 5, 562 controls concerning MDM2 T309G polymorphism with respect to leukemia were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between MDM2 T309G polymorphism and leukemia risk in four models in overall populations (G vs T: OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.49, p=0.001; GG vs TT: OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.21-2.30, p=0.002; GG vs TG/TT: OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.21-2.00,p=0.001; GG/TG vs TT: OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.05-1.57, p=0.015). In the sub-group analysis according to ethnicity, increased leukemia risks were observed in three genetic models among Asians but not Caucasians. In conclusion, the results of our meta-analysis suggest that the MDM2 T309G polymorphism can increase the risk of leukemia, especially among Asian populations.