This study was conducted to evaluate the one-year survival rate of patients with primary malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors after surgical treatment in Kazakhstan. Retrospective data of patients undergoing operations in the Department of Central Nervous System Pathology in the JSC National Centre for Neurosurgery in the period from 2009 to 2011 were used as the research material. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed with the following information: gender, date of birth, place of residence, diagnosis according to ICD-10, the date of the operation, the morphological type of tumor, clinical stage, state at the end of the first year of observation, and the date of death. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the JSC National Centre for Neurosurgery. The overall one-year overall survival rate (n=152) was 56.5% (95% confidence interval (CI):50.2-62.7), and 79.5% (95% CI 72.2-86.8) and 33.1% (95% CI: 21.0-42.3) for Grades I-II (n=76) and Grades III-IV (n=76), respectively. Significant prognostic factors which affected the survival rate were age and higher tumor grade (Grades III-IV), corresponding with results described elsewhere in the world.