Background: The problem of cancer, especially lung cancer, is very acute in Bangladesh. The present study was conducted to evaluate the risk of lung cancer among Bangladeshi people based on hereditary, socio-economic and demographic factors. Materials and
Methods: This study was carried out in 208 people (patients-104, controls-104) from January 2012 to September 2013 using a structured questionnaire containing details of lung cancer risk factors including smoking, secondhand smoke, tobacco leaf intake, age, gender, family history,chronic lung diseases, radiotherapy in the chest area, diet, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and income. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypotheses were used for the analysis using SPSS software (version 20).
Results: According to this study, lung cancer was more prevalent in males than females. Smoking was the highest risk factor (OR=9.707; RR=3.924; sensitivity=0.8872 and P<0.0001) followed by previous lung disease (asthma, tuberculosis etc.) (OR=7.095; RR=1.508; sensitivity=0.316 and P<0.0001))for male patients. Highly cooked food (OR=2.485; RR=1.126; sensitivity=0.418 and P=0.004)) and also genetic inheritance (OR=1.93; RR=1.335; sensitivity=0.163 and P=0.138) demonstrated significant correlation with lung cancer as risk factors after these two and alcohol consumption was not prevalent. On the other hand, for female patients, tobacco leaf intake represented the highest risk (OR=2.00; RR=1.429; sensitivity= 0.667 and P=0.5603) while genetic inheritance and highly cooked food also correlate with lung cancer but not so significantly. Socioeconomic status and education level also play important roles in causing lung cancer. Some 78.5% male and 83.3% of female cancer patients were rural residents, while 58.2% lived at the margin or below the poverty line. Most male (39.8%) and female (50.0%) patients had completed only primary level education, and 27.6% male and 33.3% female patients were illiterate. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among the less educated persons.
Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate the importance of creating awareness aboutlung cancer risk factors among Bangladeshi people and making appropriate access to health services for the illiterate, poor, rural people.