Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are undoubtedly involved in genesis of human malignancies. HPV plays an etiological role in cervical cancer, but also in many vaginal, vulvar, anal and penile cancers, as well as head and neck cancers. In addition, a number of non-malignant diseases such as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are attributable to HPV. Moreover, HPV forms have detected in several other cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung, prostate, ovarian, breast, skin, colorectal and urinary tract cancers, but associations with etiology in these cases is controversial. The aim of this systematic assessment was to estimate the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV types in HPV-associated cancers, HPV-related non-malignant diseases and in cancers that may be associated with HPV in Iran. The present investiagtion covered 61 studies on a variety of cancers in Iranian populations. HPV prevalence was 77.5 % and 32.4% in cervical cancer andhead and neck cancers, respectively. HPV was detected in 23.1%, 22.2%, 10.4%, 30.9%, 14% and 25.2% of esophageal squamous cell, lung, prostate, urinary tract cancers, breast and skin cancers, respectively. HPV16 and 18 were the most frequent HPV types in all cancers. The findings of present study imply that current HPV vaccines for cervical cancer may decrease the burden of other cancers if they are really related to HPV.