Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in DNA damage repair pathways after DNA damage and may enhance tumor cell radio- and chemo-therapy sensitivity. To investigate the potentiation of antitumor efficacy of lidamycin (LDM), an enediyne agent by the Hsp90 inhibitorgeldanamycin (GDM), and possible mechanisms, we have determined effects on ovarian cancer SKOV-3, hepatoma Bel-7402 and HepG2 cells by MTT assay, apoptosis assay, and cell cycle analysis. DNA damagewas investigated with H2AX C-terminal phosphorylation (γH2AX) assays. We found that GDM synergistically sensitized SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells to the enediyne LDM, and this was accompanied by increased apoptosis. GDM pretreatment resulted in a greater LDM-induced DNA damage and reduced DNA repair as compared with LDM alone. However, in HepG2 cells GDM did not show significant sensitizing effects both in MTT assay and in DNA damage repair. Abrogation of LDM-induced G2/M arrest by GDM was found in SKOV-3 but not inHepG2 cells. Furthermore, the expression of ATM, related to DNA damage repair responses, was also decreased by GDM in SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells but not in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of LDM, possibly by reducing the repair of LDM-induced DNA damage.