To investigate the anti-proliferative mechanism of mangiferin in a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, CNE2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of mangiferin (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM) or with PBS as a control for 72 hours. Analyses were made of the cell cycle and apoptosis with measurement of mRNA and protein levels of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Bax. Flow cytometry assays showed mangiferin could inhibit CNE2 cell proliferation via G2/M arrest and induction of early apoptosis. Real time PCR andWestern blotting showed the mRNA and protein level of Bcl-2 to be down-regulated, while those of Bax were up-regulated, when CNE2 cells were treated with mangiferin. This investigation indicated anti-proliferation effects of mangiferin through induction of cell apoptosis regulated by Bcl-2 and Bax expression.