Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The XRCC1 Arg194Trp variant affects the proliferating cell nuclear antigen( PCNA) binding region, which suggests that this mutation may contribute to gliomagenesis and a number of articles have examine the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp and the susceptibility to glioma. However, the results were conflicting. Test of heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, metaanalysis, and assessment of publication bias were all performed in our present meta-analysis, covering a total of5,407 patients and 7,715 healthy persons. In the overall analysis the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism showed a significant association with glioma susceptibility in a recessive mode l(for TrpTrp vs ArgArg+ArgTrp: OR=1.918,95%CI=1.575-2.336, I2=2.3%). In addition, analysis of subgroups presented an increased risk in Asians and populations-based on hospitals. The results suggested that the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for glioma, especially in Asian population. To further evaluate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma risk, thousands of subjects and tissue-specific biochemical characterizations are required.