Dietary Habits Contributing to Breast Cancer Risk Among Iranian Women


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possiblerisk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. Materials and
Methods: A study of dietaryhabits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. Therisk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waistcircumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, andfamily history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to therelationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for fryingfoods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not useof mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption,and eating outdoors owere investigated.
Results: Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMIand waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancerrisk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fatdairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breastcancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidanceof mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruitconsumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women.
Conclusions:Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet couldbe an appropriate strategy for preventing breast cancer.