Background: Incorporation of molecular analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene intoroutine clinical practice has shown great promise to provide personalized therapy of the non-small cell lungcancer (NSCLC) in the developed world. However, the genetic testing of EGFR mutations has not yet becomeroutine clinical practice in territories remote from the central regions of Russia. Therefore, we aimed to study thefrequency of major types of activating mutations of the EGFR gene in NSCLC patients residing in West Siberia.Materials and
Methods: We examined EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 in 147 NSCLC patients (excludingsquamous cell lung carcinomas) by real time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: EGFR mutations were detectedin 28 of the 147 (19%) patients. There were 19 (13%) cases with mutations in exon 19 and 9 cases (6%) in exon21. Mutations were more frequently observed in women (42%, p=0.000) than in men (1%). A significantlyhigher incidence of EGFR mutations was observed in bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (28%, p=0.019) and inadenocarcinomas (21%, p=0.024) than in large cell carcinomas, mixed adenocarcinomas, and NOS (4%). TheEGFR mutation rate was much higher in never-smokers than in smokers: 38% vs. 3% (p=0.000). The frequencyof EGFR mutations in the Kemerovo and Tomsk regions was 19%.
Conclusions: The incorporation of molecularanalysis of the EGFR gene into routine clinical practice will allow clinicians to provide personalised therapy,resulting in a significant increase in survival rates and improvement in life quality of advanced NSCLC patients.