Roles of White Blood Cells and Subtypes as Inflammatory Markers in Skin Cancer


Objective: Skin tumors are the most commonly seen cancer type worldwide. Regarding pathogenesis, it isthought that disruption of kinetics through T lymphocyte-mediated development of chronic inflammation maybe involved. The present study was intended to identify role of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytesand lymphocytes in the determination of risk for skin cancer. Materials and
Methods: We retrospectively reviewedcharts of 569 cases diagnosed as having primary skin tumors. Data regarding age, gender and histopathologicalsubtype were recorded. Blood parameters studied on the day before surgery including WBCs, neutrophils, andlymphocyte counts, neutrophil:lymphocyte and neutrophil:monocyte ratios were also recorded. Two-hundredand two healthy individuals presented for check-up in an outpatient clinic were selected as the control group.Parameters studied in cases with skin cancer were compared to those healthy individuals. Findings: Of the caseswith skin cancer, 401 were basal cell carcinoma (BCC) while 144 were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 13 weremalignant melanoma (MM). WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio werefound to be lower in the patient group than in the healthy control group (p<0.001) while no significant differencewas found in other parameters reviewed (p>0.05). No significant difference was found in WBC, neutrophil,neutrophil: monocyte ratio according to gender (p>0.05). Monocyte count was found to be 0.68±0.61 in men and0.55±0.25 in women, indicating strong statistical significance (p<0.001). WBC, neutrophil and monocyte valueswere highest in control group while lowest in BCC. When BCC and SCC groups were compared to controls,significant differences found (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in lymphocyte counts among groups(p=0.976). Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios were 3.24 in BCC, 3.59 in SCC, 3.44 in MM and 5.06 in control group(p<0.001).
Conclusions: In our study, it was found that there were significant differences in complete blood count,neutrophil, monocyte and neutrophil:lymphocyte levels among groups. Neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio was foundto be lowest in BCC among skin cancers.