Cervical cancer, mostly progressing from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, is a major cause of morbidityand mortality in Chinese women. This is largely due to high prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviruses(hr-HPVs) in the population. The prevalence of hr-HPV DNA in women and in cervical lesions women rangedfrom 9.9% to 17.% and from 50.5% to 70.9% in different regions of China, respectively. The most commongenotypes somewhat differ between regions throughout the country and from those in many other countries.This may be a challenge to cervical cancer screening and prevention in China. Combined detection of particularHPV genotypes should be recommended in all geographical regions in China and greater attention must be paidto specific hr-HPV types during cervical cancer screening and follow-up of cervical lesions. Besides, vaccinationfor prevention of cervical cancer by particular HPV genotypes, has not been introduced to China so far. Updatedknowledge on prevalent HPV genotypes should be provided to public health organizations to help with thedevelopment of more effective HPV vaccines, which can protect Chinese women against HPV types prevalentin local China and thus have a substantial impact on the cervical cancer burden.