Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is an essential cause of cervical cancer. Becauseof substantial geographical variation in the HPV genotype distribution, data regarding HPV type-specificprevalence for a particular country are mandatory for providing baseline information to estimate effectivenessof currently implemented HPV-based cervical cancer prevention. Accordingly, this review was conducted toevaluate the HR-HPV genotype distribution among Thai women with precancerous cervical lesions i.e. cervicalintraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 (CIN 2-3), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and invasive cervical cancer byreviewing the available literature. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among Thai women with CIN 2-3 rangedfrom 64.8% to 90.1% and the three most common genotypes were HPV 16 (38.5%), HPV 58 (20.0%), and HPV18 (5.5%). There were high squamous cell carcinoma/CIN 2-3 prevalence ratios in women with CIN 2-3 infectedwith HPV 33 and HPV 58 (1.40 and 1.38, respectively), emphasizing the importance of these subtypes in the riskof progression to invasive cancer among Thai women. Data regarding the prevalence and genotype distributionof HR-HPV in Thai women with AIS remain unavailable. Interesting findings about the distribution of HPVgenotype in cervical cancer among Thai women include: (1) a relatively high prevalence of HPV 52 and HPV58 in invasive squamous cell carcinoma; (2) the prevalence of HPV 18-related adenocarcinoma is almost doublethepreviously reported prevalence, and (3) 75% of neuroendocrine carcinomas are HPV18-positive when takinginto account both single and multiple infections.