Background: Participation is one of the major factors affecting the long-term success of population-basedprostate cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to explore strong factors linked to participationin prostate cancer screening among older Jordanian adults using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Materials and
Methods: Data were obtained from Jordanian older adults, aged 40 years and over, who visited a comprehensivehealth care center within the Ministry of Health. A pilot test was conducted to investigate the internal consistencyof the the Champion Health Belief Model Scale for prostate cancer screening and the clarity of survey questions.Sample characteristics and rates of participation in prostate cancer screening were examined using means andfrequencies. Important factors associated with participation in prostate cancer screening were examined usingbivariate correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: About 13% of the respondents hadadhered to prostate cancer screening guidelines over the previous decade. Four out of the seven HBM-drivenfactors (perceived susceptibility, benefits and barriers to PSA test, and health motivation) were statisticallysignificant. Those with greater levels of susceptibility, benefits of PSA test and health motivation and lower levelsof barriers to PSA testing were more likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. Family history, presenceof urinary symptoms, age, and knowledge about prostate cancer significantly predicted the participation inprostate cancer screening.
Conclusions: Health professionals should focus more on the four modifiable HBMrelatedfactors to encourage older adults to participate in prostate cancer screening. Intervention programs,which lower perceived barriers to PSA testing and increase susceptibility, benefits of PSA testing and healthmotivation, should be developed and implemented.