The supportive care of patients receiving antineoplastic treatment has dramatically improved over the pastfew years and development of effective measures to prevent nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy serves asone of the most important examples of this progress. A patient who starts cancer treatment with chemotherapylists chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting as among their greatest fears. Inadequately controlled emesisimpairs functional activity and quality of life, increases the use of health care resources, and may occasionallycompromise adherence to treatment. New insights into the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nauseaand vomiting, a better understanding of the risk factors for these effects, and the availability of new antiemeticagents have all contributed to substantial improvements in emetic control. This review focuses on currentunderstanding of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the status of pharmacological interventionsfor their prevention and treatment.