Background: Pyogenic granuloma is a common non-neoplastic connective tissue proliferation. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules and CD34 is a marker for evaluation of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 & CD34 in oral pyogenic granuloma and normal gingiva. Materials and
Methods: This study was performed on thirty five formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded samples of gingival pyogenic granuloma. Also we used thirty five paraffined blocks of normal gingiva as control group which were taken from crown lengthening surgery. We employed immunohistochemistry staining for our prepared microscopic slides using monoclonal mouse anti-human antibodies against ICAM-1 (CD54), VCAM-1 (CD106) and CD34. Slides were examined under light microscope and then the mean amount of stained vessels also known as microvascular density (MVD) in highly vascularized areas (hot spots) was measured. Paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare the difference between quantitative variables and Chi-square test for qualitative variables in different groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to compare relations between quantitative variables. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The mean of MVD for ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD34 was significantly higher in pyogenic granuloma than normal gingiva (p<0.001& p<0.001& p<0.001, respectively). Expression of CD34 in pyogenic granuloma was significantly higher than ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 (P<0.001). Besides, expression of ICAM-1 in normal gingiva, was significantly lower than two other markers (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Regarding the results, it seems that ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD34 are useful biomarkers in evaluation of vascular and inflammatory lesions such as gingival pyogenic granuloma and the results indicate the role of these biomarkers in pathogenesis of oral pyogenic granuloma.