Background: Bone tumors are neoplasias with a high overall mortality; one of the main factors that reduce survival is their high capacity to develop metastases. It has been reported that finding lung metastases at diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OS), chondrosarcoma (CS) and giant cell tumor of bone (GCTb) is quite common. In this study, we inquire the relationship of metastases caused by these tumors with different clinical and pathological aspects, in order to guide medical personnel in the diagnosis and opportune treatment of metastases or micro metastases. Materials and
Methods: We collected data of 384 patients with clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnosis of OS, GCTb and CS that attended the National Rehabilitation Institute (INR) during 2006 to 2014. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were performed for data analysis.
Results: In the three tumor types, the presence of metastases at diagnosis was variable (p=0.0001). Frequency of metastases was 36.7%, 31.7% and 13.2% for OS, CS and GCTb respectively. The average age had no significant difference (p>0.05) in relation to metastases, even so, patients with OS and GCTb and metastases, were older while patients with CS and metastases were younger, in comparison to patients without metastases. Males had a higher frequency of metastases (68.2%, p = 0.09) in contrast to CS and GCTb, in which the metastases was more frequent in women with 51.9% (p = 0.44) and 57.9% (p = 0.56) respectively. Broadly, metastasis was associated with primary tumors located in the femur (44.4%), followed by the tibia (15.6%); metastases was more frequent when primary tumor of GCTb and OS were in the same bones, but were located in the hip (26.3%) for CS.
Conclusions: The frequency of metastases in OS, GCTb and CS is high in our population and is determined by different clinicopathological variables related to the kind of tumor. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate metastases subsequent to diagnosis and associations with survival and clinicopathological factors , as well as to determine the sensitivity and specificity of current methods of detection.