Several studies reported there was a polymorphism (rs531564 C > G) in miR-124 gene. To investigate the MiR-124 rs531564 polymorphism and cancer risk. We conducted a literature search of the Medline, Embase and Wangfang Medicine databases to identify all relevant studies for this meta-analysis. We determined that the miR-124 rs531564 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risks of cancers in the allelic model (G vs C, OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.53-0.94, P=0.02), homozygote model (GG vs CC, OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.26-0.66, P=0.0002), dominant model (GG/GC vs CC, OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.51-0.98, P=0.04) and recessive model (GG vs GC/CC, OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.27-0.69, P=0.0004). In an analysis stratified by cervical cancer group, significant associations were observed in the allelic model (G vs C, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.32-0.66, P<0.0001), and dominant model (GG/GC vs CC, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.3-0.66, P<0.0001). Subgroup analysis also revealed a decreased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the homozygote model (GG vs CC, OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.27-0.75, P=0.002) and recessive model (GG vs GC/CC, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.28-0.75, P=0.002). This meta-analysis suggests that the miR-124 rs531564 C > G polymorphism is an important risk factor for cancers among the Chinese population.