Phage Particles as Vaccine Delivery Vehicles: Concepts, Applications and Prospects


The development of new strategies for vaccine delivery for generating protective and long-lasting immune responses has become an expanding field of research. In the last years, it has been recognized that bacteriophages have several potential applications in the biotechnology and medical fields because of their intrinsic advantages, such as ease of manipulation and large-scale production. Over the past two decades, bacteriophages have gained special attention as vehicles for protein/peptide or DNA vaccine delivery. In fact, whole phage particles are used as vaccine delivery vehicles to achieve the aim of enhanced immunization. In this strategy, the carried vaccine is protected from environmental damage by phage particles. In this review, phage-based vaccine categories and their development are presented in detail, with discussion of the potential of phage-based vaccines for protection against microbial diseases and cancer treatment. Also reviewed are some recent advances in the field of phagebased vaccines.