Background: Breast cancer (BCa) is the most common malignancy in Mexican women. A set of histopathological markers has been established to guide BCa diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Nevertheless, in only a few Mexican health services, such as that of the Secretariat of National Defense (SEDENA for its acronym in Spanish), are these markers commonly employed for assessing BCa. The aim of this study was to explore the association of Ki67, TP53, HER2/neu, estrogenic receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) with BCa risk factors. Materials and
Methods: Clinical histories provided background patient information. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was conducted on 48 tissue samples from women diagnosed with BCa and treated with radical mastectomy. The Chi square test or Fisher exact test together with the Pearson and Spearman correlation were applied.
Results: On average, patients were 58±10.4 years old. It was most common to find invasive ductal carcinoma (95.8%), histological grade 3 (45.8%), with a poor Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI; 80.4%). ERs and PRs were associated with smoking and alcohol consumption, metastasis at diagnosis and Ki67 expression (p<0.05). PR+ was also related to urea and ER+ (p<0.05). Ki67 was associated with TP53 and elevated triglycerides (p<0.05), and HER2/neu with ER+, the number of pregnancies and tumor size (p<0.05). TP53 was also associated with a poor NPI (p <0.05) and CD34 with smoking (p<0.05). The triple negative status (ER-/PR-/HER2/neu-) was related to smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to biomass, number of pregnancies, metastasis and a poor NPI (p<0.05). Moreover, the luminal B subtype was associated with histological type (p=0.007), tumor size (p=0.03) and high cholesterol (p=0.02).
Conclusions: Ki67, TP53, HER2/neu, ER and PR proved to be related to several clinical and pathological factors. Hence, it is crucial to determine this IHC profile in women at risk for BCa. Certain associations require further study to understand physiological/biochemical/molecular processes.