Gallstones constitute one of the more common and relatively costly conditions of the gastrointestinal system and are a major risk factor for gallbladder cancer. Most gallstone cases involve individuals younger than 60 years of age, those older representing 9% of the total in one series. There are many risk factors for gallstones and Lith and Mucin genes, for example, play important roles in their formation. Surgery is one therapeutic approach but in the future it is to be expected that drugs for prevention of gallstones will be developed in the future. This will have clear implications for gallbladder cancer control.