The liver is one of the most common sites of cancer in the world, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) predominating. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) is considered as an important potential risk factors for HCC. Different people have diverse responses to HBV infection regarding the likelihood of HCC development, and host factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might account for this. The present study was conducted to evaluate any association between SNP frequencies in two genes, XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150), and the risk of CHB and HCC development in Thai patients. The study covered 369 subjects including 121 HCC patients, 141 with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and 107 healthy controls. With TaqMan real-time PCR, the results showed that no significant association between XRCC4 (rs1805377) and ATF6 (rs2070150) and risk of HCC in the Thai population. From this first study of the 2 polymorphisms and HCC in Thailand it can concluded that rs1805377 and rs2070150 polymorphisms may not be applicable as genetic markers in the Thai population for HCC assessment.