Medical Genetics Unit, Sevket Yilmaz Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey
The results of this study demonstrate the potential prognostic and predictive values of KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been proven that KRAS and BRAF mutations are predictive biomarkers for resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We demonstrated the distribution of KRAS (codons 12, 13 and 61) and BRAF (codon 600) gene mutations in 50 mCRCs using direct sequencing and compared the results with clinicopathological data. KRAS and BRAF mutations were identified in 15 (30%) and 1 (2%) patients, respectively. We identified KRAS mutations in codon 12, 13 and 61 in 73.3% (11/15), 20% (3/15) and 6.67% (1/15) of the positive patients, respectively. The KRAS mutation frequency was significantly higher in tumors located in the ascending colon (p=0.043). Thus, we found that approximately 1/3 of the patients with mCRC had KRAS mutations and the only clinicopathological factor related to this mutation was tumor location. Future studies with larger patient groups should yield more accurate data regarding the molecular mechanism of CRC and the association between KRAS and BRAF mutations and clinicopathological features.