Department of Haematogenetics, National Institute of Immunohematology (NIIH-ICMR), King Edward Memorial Hospital Campus, Mumbai, India
Background: Matrix metalloproteinase -2 (gelatinase-A, Mr 72,000 type IV collagenase, MMP-2) and -9 (gelatinase-B, Mr 92,000 type IV collagenase, MMP-9) are key molecules that play roles in tumor growth, invasion, tissue remodeling, metastasis and stem-cell regulation by digesting extracellular matrix barriers. MMP-2 and -9 are well known to impact on solid cancer susceptibility, whereas, in hematological malignancies, a paucity of data is available to resolve the function of these regulatory molecules in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and stromal cells of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate mRNA expression and gelatinase A and B secretion from BM-MNCs in vitro and genotypic associations of MMP-2 (-1306 C/T; rs243865), MMP-9 (-1562 C/T; rs3918242), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase -1 (TIMP-1) (372T/C; rs4898, Exon 5) and TIMP-2 (-418G/C; rs8179090) in MDS and AML. Results: The study covered cases of confirmed MDS (n=50), AML (n=32) and healthy controls (n=110). MMP- 9 mRNA expression revealed 2 fold increased expression in MDS-RAEB II and 2.5 fold in AML M-4 (60-70% blasts). Secretion of gelatinase- B also revealed the MMP-9 mRNA expression and ELISA data also supported these data. We noted that those patients having more blast crises presented with more secretion of MMP-9 and its mRNA expression. In contrast MMP-9 (-1562 C/T) showed significant polymorphic associations in MDS (p<0.02) and AML (p<0.02). MMP-9 mRNA expression of C/T and T/T genotypes were 1.5 and 2.5 fold increased in MDS and AML respectively. In AML, MMP-2 C/T and T/T genotypes showed 2.0 fold mRNA expression. Only MMP-9 (-1306 C/T) showed significant 4 fold (p<0.001) increased risk with chemical and x-ray exposed MDS, while tobacco and cigarette smokers have 3 fold (p<0.04) risk in AML. Conclusions: In view of our results, MMP-9 revealed synergistic secretion and expression in blast crises of MDS and AML with 'gene' polymorphic effects and is significantly associated with increased risk with tobacco, cigarette and environmental exposure. Release and secretion of these enzymes may influence hematopoietic cell behavior and may be important in the clinical point of view. It may offer valuable tools for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as possible targets for the treatments.