Epidemiology Group, Department of Pathology, Cancer Institute, Maldonado, Uruguay
Background: In order to determine the role of meat consumption and related nutrients in the etiology of prostate cancer we conducted a case-control study among Uruguayan men in the time period 1998-2007. Results: The study included 464 cases and 472 controls, frequency matched for age and residence. Both series were drawn from the four major public hospitals in Montevideo. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of prostate cancer by quartiles of meat intake and related nutrients. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake of total meat (OR = 5.19, 95 % CI 3.46-7.81), red meat (OR = 4.64, 95 % CI 3.10-6.95), and processed meat (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.59) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Meat nutrients were directly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (OR for cholesterol 5.61, 95 % CI 3.75-8.50). Moreover, both total meat and red meat displayed higher risks among obese patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that total and red meat and meat nutrients may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer in Uruguay.