Department of Pathology, Lourdes Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, India
Background: Awareness about prostate cancer has increased in the community, and prostate cancer screening examinations, including prostate specific antigen (PSA) assays, are now widely available. Prior to the PSA era, up to 27% of prostate cancers were detected incidentally at the time of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). After PSA testing became widely available, the incidence of incidentally detected carcinoma prostate in TURP specimens without prior diagnosis reduced to 5-13%. However, the incidence of incidentally detected carcinoma prostate has been reported to vary across the globe since various factors can influence the identification of this malignancy in TURP specimens. In this paper, we focus on rates of incidentally detected prostate cancer in TURP specimens in our hospital and correlate it with various parameters. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study of histopathological findings of biopsy specimens was conducted for patients undergoing TURP during a period of 5 years from April 2010. The inclusion criteria were patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (digital rectal examination (DRE) not showing any abnormally hard areas and normal age adjusted PSA values). Patients with elevated PSA, abnormal DRE, documented urinary tract infection and proved adenocarcinoma prostate (CaP) were excluded from the study. The total weight of prostatectomy specimen, occurrence of carcinoma prostate in the chips, percentage of total tissue resected showing malignancy and Gleason's scores were recorded. Results: A total of 597 patients belonging to the inclusion criteria were studied. The incidence of occult CaP in the study group was 5.2 % (31/597). Out of these, 8 belonged to T1a and 23 belonged to T1b stages. The age group 70 - 79 years had the maximum incidence of occult CaP. It was observed that the clinical grading of prostate did not have a bearing on the incidence of occult CaP whereas the weight of resected specimen correlated with the incidence of CaP. The incidence of occult CaP was greater with low volume prostates ( < 20 g). (P=0.15). Conclusions: The rate of incidentally detected adenocarcinoma prostate in patients undergoing TURP for clinically diagnosed BPH was found to be only 5.2 % in our study which is low when compared with similar studies done elsewhere. The age of the patient and weight of the resected specimen correlated with incidence of occult prostate cancer. The clinical grading of prostate by DRE however, demonstrated no correlation.