Departments of Microbiology and clinical parasitology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Egypt
Since 1980, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been used as an important tool for the evaluation of malignant diseases in hollow viscus and bilio-pancreas, as well as sub-epithelial tumors. The high-resolution capacity and low penetration depth of EUS make it possible to obtain highly detailed images of the gastrointestinal wall and immediate surroundings to a depth of 4-5 cm. Thus, over the past 35 years, EUS succeeded to modify management in significant number of cases and is now considered a gold standard tool for many gastrointestinal diseases, especially in the pancreatico-biliary tract, and adjuvant needle insertion now allows access to remote lesions that were difficult to reach in the past. With the growing spectrum of indications, tissue sampling for diagnostic purposes has become common. In this review, we aim to highlight the expanding spectrum of EUS indications and uses in staging of upper gastrointestinal malignancies, especially esophageal, gastric and ampullary tumors.