Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India
Purpose: To determine the risk factors, clinical symptoms and patterns of spread in laryngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the Regional Cancer Centre, Imphal, Manipur, India. One hundred and sixteen patients with laryngeal cancer were retrospectively reviewed for epidemiological data and descriptive statistics were reported for various variables. Results: Median age at presentation was 65 years and 32.8% were undernourished at presentation. The male to female ratio was 5.4:1. Heavy smoking and tobacco chewing was associated in 91.4% and 33.6% of patients respectively. Tracheostomy was required in 21.5% leading to diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. Almost all were squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine and verrucous carcinoma accounting for less than 2%. Supraglottic, glottic and trans-glottic tumors were 56.9%, 36.3% and 6.9% respectively. Nodal metastases were seen in 81.8% of supraglottic cancers and 31.6% of glottic cancers with supraglottic involvement. Level II neck nodes were the commonest site followed by level III. Distant metastases (only liver) were apparent in 1.7% at presentation. Including these liver metastases, unresectable cases were limited to 6% of the patients. Conclusions: Tobacco use is implicated in almost all of the cases and the sex ratio has also decreased due to increased female smokers. The supraglottis remains the commonest site and incidence of nodal metastases is higher than in other countries. There is also a higher requirement for tracheostomy at presentation in this region.