Systematic Review of Smoking Initiation among Asian Adolescents, 20052015: Utilizing the Frameworks of Triadic Influence and Planned Behavior


Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Saadatul Bolkiah (PAPRSB) Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam Email :


Background: A recent WHO data report on mortality attributable to tobacco use including cigarette smoking indicated a very high burden of deaths in Asia and that people often initiate smoking as early as young adolescents. The objectives of this study were to systematically review peerreviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation among Asian adolescents and to develop a conceptual model of factors influencing smoking initiation by integrating all relevant factors based on existing data. Materials and Methods: Following a PRISMA guideline, a systematic review of articles published between 2005 and June 2015 was conducted using 5 databases on cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents (aged 1019 years) living in Asia. We summarized the main findings of each study according to our research questions and data that emerged during the data extraction process. Analysis and categorization were based on the TTI and TPB models and classification of factors extracted from the study, were as follows: personal factors, social factors, broader environmental factors, mediators, and intention to initiate smoking and smoking behavior. Results: Of 1,227 identified studies, only 20 were included in this review. Our findings found that the mean age of cigarette smoking initiation ranged from 10 to 14 years and those who are more likely to initiate smoking are male, older adolescents, adolescents with low parental SES, individuals with low parental monitoring, low parental education level and having no discussion on smoking at home, those living in public housing and those exhibiting healthrisk behavior. Our study also revealed that the risk of smoking initiation increased when they are exposed to smokers, influenced by peers, exposed to tobacco advertisements, receive pocket money, have lack of knowledge about smoking, have poor school performance, have a family conflict and have psychological problems. The conceptual model developed demonstrated complex networks of factors influencing initiation. Conclusions: This systematic review presents various factors influencing smoking initiation of the Asian adolescents and provides a conceptual framework to further analyze factors. Future studies should have a standard measure of smoking initiation, should analyze interactions and the intensity of relationships between different factors or variables in the conceptual model. This will in turn consolidate the understanding of the different factors affecting smoking initiation and will help to improve interventions in this area.