Associations of Most Prevalent Risk Factors with Lung Cancer and Their Impact on Survival Length


Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Research Group, Department of Bioinformatics and Biosciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, E-mail:


Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Its incidence and mortality rates are on the rise in Pakistan. However, epidemiological studies to identify common lung cancer determinants in the Pakistani population have been limited. In this study, data of 440 cases and 323 controls were collected from different hospitals in Peshawar and Islamabad, along with information about socio-demographic factors including age, sex and smoking. Univariate and multi-factorial analyses of socio-demographic factors in association with each other were also performed. Overall survival analysis highlighted that, out of 440 patients in the lung cancer dataset, 204 people were uncensored with a median survival time of 13 months (95% CI=12-18). There were 41 femaleand 399 male patients. Differences were observed between length of survival in the males and females (χ12 = 6.1; p-value = 0.01). Gender was observed to be significantly related to survival (p-value< 0.01), with better survival in females (hazard ratio=2). Cox regression was extended to adjust for the covariate age (z = 2.5; p-value = 0.02). Survival analysis was also performed on the basis of smoking groups (current smokers, former smokers and never smoked individuals) and smoking duration (smoking duration>10 years,