Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common of malignancy found in Thai women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and association with abnormal cervical cytology in Thai women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Gynecologic Clinic, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand. A total of 2,144 cases who underwent annual cervical cancer screening by co-testing (liquid based cytology and HPV testing, DNA versus mRNA) during the priod from July 2013 to June 2016 were recruited in this study. Results: Prevalence of positive high risk (HR) HPV DNA and mRNA test were 19.7 and 8.4%, respectively with a statistically significant difference. Majority of cases of abnormal cytology in this study were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). In patients with ASC-US, positive HR HPV DNA was greater than in the mRNA group (10.1 and 4.5%, p<0.001). Nonetheless, there was no significant difference in participants with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV mRNA test had slightly lower sensitivity but higher negative predictive value (NPV) than the DNA test to detect abnormal cytology during cervical cancer screening (p<0.001). Both HPV test (DNA and mRNA) had equally efficacy to detect high grade precancerous lesion or higher (CIN 2). Conclusions: Prevalence of HR HPV DNA and mRNA were 19.7 and 8.4 percent, respectively. NPV of HPV mRNA was higher than DNA test. Both tests had equal efficacy to detect CIN 2 with sensitivity and specificity of 63% vs 55.7% and 83% vs 92%, respectively.