Department of Urology Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
Background: Lymph node and distant metastases are known as the prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinical parameters are needed to predict metastases preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess clinical predictive factors for lymph node and distant metastases. Materials and Methods: We collected RCC data from January 1995 until December 2015 at Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in Jakarta. We only reviewed data that had renal cell carcinoma histopathology by operation or biopsy. Clinical information such as patient age, gender, hemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and tumor size (clinical T stage) were reviewed and analyzed by Chi-squre and logistic regression to establish clinical predictive value. Results: A total of 102 patients were reviewed. There were 32 (31.4%) with lymph node metastases and 27 (26.5%) with distant metastases. Age, Hb and clinical T staging were associated with nodal metastases. However, only Hb and clinical T staging were found to be associated with distant metastases. By logistic regression, we found T3-4 in clinical T-stage to be the only predictor of nodal metastases (OR 5.14; 1.87 - 14.09) and distant metastases (OR 3.42; 1.27 - .9.23). Conclusions: Clinical T-stages of T3 and T4 according to The AJCC TNM classification could be used as independent clinical predictive factors for lymph node or distant metastases in patients with RCC.