1Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, RAMA VI Rd. Ratchathewi, 10400 Bangkok, Thailand
2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, RAMA VI Rd., Ratchathewi, 10400 Bangkok, Thailand
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major worldwide health problem owing to its high prevalence and mortality rates. Carcinogenesis in the colon is a multistage and multifactorial process. An imbalance between free radical exposure and anti-oxidant defense systems may leads to oxidative stress and attack of macromolecules which can alter signal transduction pathways and gene expression. Consequently, oxidative damage can lead to cellular dysfunction and contribute to pathophysiological processes in a variety of diseases including CRC. One factor tightly associated with CRC is chronic inflammation, which can be present from the earliest stage of tumor onset. Unpolished rice is an attractive chemoprevention in CRC due to their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this paper is to review evidence linking oxidative stress and inflammation to CRC and to provide essential background information for understanding future research on oxidative stress and inflammation on CRC. Mechanisms of action of unpolished rice in CRC carcinogenesis are also discussed.