2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Pakistan.
Background: Diagnostic karyotyping analysis is routinely used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) clinics. Categorization of patients into risk stratified groups (favorable, intermediate and adverse) according to cytogenetic findings can serve as a valuable independent prognostic factor. Method and Material: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted based on the patient records of newly diagnosed non-M3 AML young adult cases undergoing standard 3+7 i.e, Daunorubicin and Ara-C (DA) as remission induction chemotherapy. Diagnostic cytogenetic analysis reports were analyzed to classify the patients into risk stratified groups according to South West Oncology Group criteria and prognostic significance was measured with reference to achievement of haematological remission after 1st induction chemotherapy. Results: A normal karyotype was commonly expressed, found in 47.2% of patients, while 65% (n=39) appeared to have intermediate risk cytogenetics, and 13.3% (n=8) adverse or unclassified findings. Favourable cytogenetics was least frequent in the patient cohort, accounting for only 8.3 % (n=5).The impact of cytogenetic risk groups on achievement of haematological remission was evaluated by applying Pearson Chi-square, and was found to be non-significant (df=12, p=0.256) but when the outcomes of favourable risk groups with intermediate, adverse and unclassified findings compared, results were highly significant (df=6, p=0.000) for each comparison. In patients of the favourable cytogenetic risk group, HR?? was reported in 40% (n=2/5), as compared to 62.2% (n=23/37) in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, 57.1% (n=4/7) in the adverse cytogenetic risk group and 28.6% (n=2/7) in hte unclassified cytogenetic risk group. Conclusion: Cytogenetic risk stratification for AML cases following criteria provided by international guidelines did not produce conclusive results in our Pakistani patients. However, we cannot preclude an importance as the literature clearly supports the use of pretreatment karyotyping analysis as a significant predictive marker for clinical outcomes. The apparent differences between Pakistani and Western studies indicate an urgent need to develop risk stratification guidelines according to the specific cytogenetic makeup of South Asian populations.