1Doctor of Public Health Program, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta 55166, Indonesia.
3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
4ASEAN Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
5Faculty of Public Health, Thammasat University, Thailand
6Biostatistics center of excellence
Faculty of Medicine
Background: Raising breast cancer awareness is a key strategy to reduce associated mortality. While a paucity of adequately validated instruments for breast cancer awareness is applicable across cultures, even outside the health care setting such instruments have been developed. Objective: This study investigated the validity and psychometric properties of a breast cancer awareness scale in Indonesia (BCAS-I). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among Indonesian women conveniently selected within three provinces (Yogyakarta, South of Sumatera and East Nusa Tenggara) located in rural-urban areas using stratified random sampling. First, we translated all questionnaires from English to the local language and then back-translated. The third step was to perform psychometric testing of the adapted instrument by establishing internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha score 0.79) and construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: In the 856 participants who responded (responded rate = 98.28%), the age ranged from 18 to 80 years old (mean = 30, SD = 11). The BCAS-I was shown to have good internal consistency, and CFA demonstrated the model fit data adequately (χ2 = 922.267, df = 515, p <0.001, comparative fit index = 0.965, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.96, goodness-of-fit index = 0.97, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.03 95% confidence interval: 0.027, 0.034). The final version of BCAS-I consists of 33 items across 5 domains that cover most key aspects of breast cancer awareness for this population. Conclusion: The BCAS-I demonstrated good psychometric properties and was found to be valid to provide a measurement of breast cancer awareness in Asian women in general and Indonesian women in particular.