Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Zoology Department, faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
Natural Resources and Environmental Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. plant extract from Jazan region, Saudi Arabia, in an in vitro cancer model, which could be beneficial in anticancer therapy against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), prostate cell line (PC-3), human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) and normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). The human foreskin fibroblast cell line, (Hs68), was also included in the cell panel. Doxorubicin and 5-Flurouracil, broad-spectrum anticancer drugs, were used as the positive control. Methods: Cytotoxicity of Euphorbia triaculeata plant extract was investigated by employing MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed by using comet assay. Results: Both toxicity tests exhibited significant toxicity results. In the comet assay, the Euphorbia triaculeata extract exhibited genotoxic effects against MCF-7 DNA and PC 3 but not on HEPG2 cell lines in a time-dependent manner by increasing the mean percentage of DNA damage. Euphorbia triaculeata extract showed significant toxicity against cancer cells. Comparison with positive control signifies that cytotoxicity exhibited by methanol extract might have moderate activity. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Euphorbia triaculeata plant. However, the observed toxicity of this plant extract needs to be confirmed by additional studies. Based on our results, further examination of the potential anticancer properties of Euphorbia triaculeata plant species and the identification of the active ingredients of these extracts is warranted.