Document Type: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Department of Thoracic Oncology, Guizhou Cancer Hospital, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.
Teaching and Researching Section of Oncology, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.
Department of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Research, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.
Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered radiation-induced heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%. Myocardial fibrosis is the final stage of radiation-induced heart diseases, and it increases the stiffness of the myocardium and decreases myocardial systolic and diastolic function, resulting in myocardial electrical physiological disorder, arrhythmia, incomplete heart function, or even sudden death. This article reviews the pathogenesis and prevention of radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis for providing references for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis.