Tobacco Use Prevention for the Young (TUPY-S): Development, Validity and Reliability of an Interactive Multimedia Strategy from the Adolescents’ Perspective in Malaysia

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

2 School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia.


Objective: This study aims to develop, validate and determine the reliability of an interactive multimedia strategy to prevent tobacco use among the young (TUPY-S) from an adolescents’ perspective. Methods: A descriptive study design was utilized. A modular instruction guideline by Russel (1974) was followed in the entire process, comprising a feasibility study, a review of existing modules, specification of the objectives, identification of the construct criterion items, learner analysis and entry behavior specification, establishment of the sequence instruction and media selection, a tryout with students and a field test. Result: Feasibility was agreed among the researchers and the school authorities. Culturally suitable rigorously developed tobacco use preventive strategies delivered using information technology (IT) are lacking in the literature. The objective of TUPY-S is to prevent tobacco use among adolescents living in Malaysia. Identified construct criterion items include knowledge, attitude, intention to use, self-efficacy, and refusal skill. The target population was early adolescents belonging to generation-Z. Content was developed from the adolescents’ perspective and delivered using IT in Malay language. Content validity, assessed by six experts in the field and module development, was good at 86%. The students’ tryout showed satisfactory face validity subjectively and objectively (85.5%) and high alpha Cronbach reliability (0.91). Conclusion: TUPY-S was confirmed to suit early adolescents of the current generation living in Malaysia. It demonstrated good content validity among the experts, satisfactory face validity and reliability among the target population. TUPY-S is ready to be evaluated for its effectiveness among early adolescents.


Main Subjects

Volume 18, Issue 5
May 2017
Pages 1435-1443
  • Receive Date: 11 April 2017
  • Revise Date: 04 May 2017
  • Accept Date: 08 June 2017
  • First Publish Date: 08 June 2017