Differential Association of the Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors Smoking and Obesity with Triple Negative Breast Cancer in a Brazilian Population

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

Programa de pós-graduação em Saúde Publica, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB) Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil.

Abstract

 
Background: A longer lifespan and changing lifestyle-related and reproductive risk factors have led to an increased incidence of breast cancer in Brazil. There have been few studies about associations of specific risk factors with molecular subtypes of the disease. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that modulate the risk of triple negative breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A case-case analysis was performed. Data for 236 breast cancer patients from two reference centres in North-eastern Brazil were applied to assess the association of risk factors with triple negative breast cancer relative to the luminal A subtype. Molecular subtypes were defined by expression status of hormone receptors and amplification of HER2. Nominal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and to generate a model of independent variables. Results: Smoking and body mass index were differentially associated with likelihood of triple negative breast cancer compared to the Luminal A subtype (p= 0.013; p= 0.004): Women who ever smoked some time in their lives were 4.016 (OR= 0.249; CI 95%: 0.09- 0.71) times less likely to have triple negative breast cancer. Obese and overweight patients, respectively, were 4.489 (CI 95%: 1.32- 15.28) and 1.340 (CI 95%: 0.38- 4.69) times more likely to have triple negative breast cancer. Conclusions: Case-case analysis with the Luminal A subtype as the reference group indicated that smoking and body mass index are differentially associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer.

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