Development of a Colorectal Cancer Screening Intervention for Iranian Adults: Appling Intervention Mapping

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

3 Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

4 Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

5 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Abstract

 
Background: While the incidence rate of the colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing over the last three decades in Iran, very limited interventions to increase CRC screening have been developed for Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of Intervention Mapping (IM) for applying theory and evidence and considering local contexts to develop a CRC screening program among adults in Iran. Materials and Methods: From April 2014 to July 2016 following the IM process, six steps were formulated and implemented. First a need assessment was conducted involving relevant stakeholders and using focus groups discussions (n=10), individual interviews (n=20), and a household survey (n= 480). Then a matrix of change objectives was developed for each behavioral outcome and theoretical methods and their practical applications were identified to guide intervention development and implementation. A multi-component intervention was developed and piloted. Decision on suitable parts of intervention was made based on feedback of pilot study. Finally, evaluation plan including process and outcome evaluation was generated and conducted to inform future scale up. Results: The needs assessment highlighted factors affecting CRC screening including knowledge, self efficacy, social support and perceived benefit and barriers (financial problems, fear of detection of cancer and etc). Results of needs assessment were used to develop next steps IM. The program utilized methods like information delivery, modeling, and persuasion. Practical applications included video presentation, group discussion, role playing and postcards.This program was assessed through a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Results showed that there were significant differences in CRC screening uptake between intervention groups and control (P<0.001). Conclusions: IM is a useful process in the design of a theory-based intervention addressing CRC screening among Iranian population.

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