Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Using the Gail Model and It’s Predictors in Saudi Women

Document Type : Research Articles


Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, College of Agriculture and Food Science, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.


Background: The Gail Model has been widely implemented in developed and developing countries and is considered to be the best available instrument to estimate breast cancer (BC) risk for early prevention. Objective: The goals of the study were to determine five-year and lifetime BC risks and to assess BC predictors among female Saudi teachers using the Gail model. Methods: A cross sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted among 180 female Saudi secondary school teachers. The Gail model was used to evaluate the five-year and lifetime risks of developing BC. Included were a one-day 24-hour recall to assess daily serving sizes and food groups for food intake and questions regarding daily exercise, BMI, and demographic data. Result: The mean age of the teachers was 41±7.2 years, with a 0.87±0.93 mean for the five-year risk and a 9.6±5.4 mean lifetime risk of developing BC. According to the general linear model, the BC risk predictors were age, age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, family history, BMI, fruit and vegetable intake, and meat intake. Conclusion: The present study provided new information regarding the potential factors for five-year and lifetime invasive BC risk among Saudi women. Moreover, we could confirm that the Gail model is an appropriate BC risk assessment tool for Saudi women for early prevention, particularly among women at high risk of BC.


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