Exploring Effective Contextual Factors for Regular Cervical Cancer Screening in Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Midwifery, school of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

5 Mother and Childcare Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Abstract

Background: Adherence to regular screening programs for cervical cancer in Iranian women is not common.
The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors influencing behavior and compliance with guidelines.
Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted in 2016-2017 in Hamadan city, Iran. Semi-structured
in-depth interviews were conducted with 31 participants who were selected purposefully on referring to health centers.
Twenty-three were women with various experiences of cervical cancer screening and 8 were health care providers
(4 midwives, 1 gynecologist, 1 general practitioner and 1 family health expert). Guba and Lincoln criteria were used
for tustworthiness. MAXQDA10 software was employed for data analysis. Results: Four themes were extracted from
the data: an opportunity maker system, opportunities to become acquainted, concerns for healthy living, and perception
of cancer. Conclusion: The results showed sensitivity of health care providers and their appropriate performance
in relation to regular screening behavior of women is very important. Women’s perception of cancer and its curability
is another factor with a major effect on screening behavior. Opportunities for people to become acquainted with the
Pap smear in a variety of ways and concern for healthy living and the need to have a healthy life to ensure quality
of life were also found to be important.

Keywords

Main Subjects