Mammographic Density Distribution in Ras Al Khaimah (RAK): Relationships with Demographic and Reproductive Factors

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Medical Radiation Sciences, Medical Image Optimization and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

2 Department of Radiological Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

3 Discipline of Behavioral and Social Sciences in Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

4 Discipline of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

Objective: Mammographic density is an important risk factor for breast cancer and determines to a large extent
mammographic screening efficacy. This study aims to provide baseline data for mammographic density profiling of
women living in Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) and to identify risk factors associated with high mammographic density.
Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to examine a series of 366 mammography cases. The Breast Imaging
Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS, 5th edition) was used to evaluate mammographic density. Pearson’s
chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results:
Most participants (67%) fell into BI-RADS b and c mammographic density categories. Of the total sample, women
who were aged ≤ 45 years (p=0.004, OR=1.9), weighed ≤ 71kg (p=<0.0001, OR=4.8), had a body mass index of ≤ 27
kg/m2 (p=<0.0001, OR=5.1) and were of non-Arab descent (p=0.007, OR=1.8) were significantly more likely to have
denser breast tissue. Adjusted ethnicity regression analysis showed that Emirati women were significantly less likely to
have dense breast tissue compared with Western women (p=0.04, OR=0.4). Among the sample of survey participants,
increased odds of having mammographic density were among women who were full-time workers (p=0.02, OR=2.8),
of Christian faith (p=0.007, OR=4.4), nulliparous (p=0.003, OR=10.8), had three or fewer children (p=0.03, OR=3.8),
and had used oral contraceptives for three years or more (p=0.01, OR=6.1). Conclusion: This study indicated that
because Emirati women have a low mammographic density profile, screening mammography can be considered as an
effective early detection imaging modality.

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